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Master of Legislative law which is popularly known as L.L.M is a two year postgraduate course for all those students who want to pursue their higher studies in the field of law and constitution. This course is structured in such a way so that students will get detailed knowledge about the legal practices. This course gives an overview of legal affairs and all the aspects of the field of law. Lawyers are also known as the future lawmakers of the nation so it is important that they have detailed knowledge about the constitution and skills tha6t help them

L.L.M.: Course Overview

Name of the Course

Master of Legislative Law

Course Level


Course Duration

2 years

Eligibility Criteria

Bachelor's Degree from recognised university with minimum aggregate of 55%

Admission Process

Entrance Exam or Direct Admission

Average Course Fee

Employment Areas

Litigation Firms, Colleges & Universities

Corporate Houses (legal departments)

Research Dept., Law Firms,Courtrooms Arbitration Consultancies

Types of L.L.M.

L.L.M. is a postgraduate degree offered by various educational institutes and has no types. However, there are many specialisations in L.L.M. which are discussed later in this article.

Advantages of L.L.M.

  1. Boost in earning potential: Having a masters degree especially in the field of law will enable a candidate to earn better. Any higher degree in any field will provide an individual with additional knowledge and this can be advantageous in terms of a better salary.

  2. Expansion of knowledge: Indian constitution is the lengthiest constitution in the world. The more an individual studies the more knowledge he or she will acquire in the field of law.

  3. Sharpen research-skills: Doing an L.L.M. will help an individual in enhancing his or her research skills. Being able to research about the case is one of the crucial skill sets in the field of law.

  4. International Experience: Going for an L.L.M. degree can also open doors for international experience in law. Several law related competitions are organised at a global scale and it can ultimately help an individual to increase his or her contacts as well.

Master of Legislative Law (L.L.M.) Eligibility

Master of Legislative Law is the most prominent course for those who want to pursue higher education or build their careers in the field of law. Every college and university that provides this course set their eligibility criteria in order to select the candidates for the course. Candidates are advised to go through each and every guideline before applying for L.L.M. Mentioned below are few guidelines for master of legislative law:

  • Students must pass bachelor’s degree from recognised university with a minimum aggregate of 55 percent.

  • There is no age bar set for this course that is those who have completed their bachelor’s degree in law can apply for this course.

  • Candidates from reserved category will get the relaxation of percentage according to government norms.

Master of Legislative Law Admissions

Entrance exams are conducted for admission in top institutes of India. Candidates have to qualify these entrance exams to study Master of Legislative Law in major colleges within India. CLAT is the most prominent law school entrance exam in India and its score is also used by many different universities for admission.

Entrance Examinations:

Some universities conduct entrance examinations on the national as well as university level. Students are required to apply for the examination on the official website of the conducting body. Some of the top entrance examinations are CLAT, AILET, LSAT. Students must check for the eligibility criteria for these examinations before applying.

Distance Mode of Education:

Some universities offer Master of Legislative Law through distance mode of education for those students who are not able to attend regular classes. Students must present at the time of examinations. Books are also given by universities via post. Some of the universities that provide distance mode of education in L.L.M are IGNOU, Annamalai university and many more.

Follwoing the admission procedure, candidates are asked to submit their required documents. Mentioned below are the some of the essential documents that must be submitted by candidates:

  • Class 10th Certificates

  • Class 10th and 12th Marksheets

  • Graduation Marksheets of each semester.

  • Bachelor's degree certificates

  • Category Certificate [if candidate belongs to reserved category as per government guidelines]

  • Character Certificate [recent]

  • Transfer Certificate

  • Passport size photographs

  • Address Proof [such as Aadhar card,Voter Id, Ration Card]

Top Master of Legislative Law Exams

For admission courses such as Master of Legislative Law, entrance exams are conducted by educational institutions. These exams are conducted for determining who is eligible for admission in top colleges of India.

Common Law Entrance Test for LLM [CLAT PG]:

CLAT PG is an entrance examination conducted for admission in Master of Legislative Law programme. Its scores are used by top institutes across India for admission. CLAT PG is regulated by NLU (National Law Universities). There is no age restriction for this entrance exam.

Name of the Examination

Common Law Entrance Test

Conducting Body

NUSRL, Ranchi

Mode of Examination

Offline (Pen and Paper)

Subjects Covered

English language, Current affairs including general knowledge, Logical reasoning, legal reasoning, quantitative aptitude.



Total Number of question

100(Objective questions)+ 2(subjective questions)

Type of Examination

Multiple Type of Question and Descriptive Questions

Total Marks


Marking Scheme

+1(for each objective type correct answer)

+25 (for each subjective question)

-0.25(for each wrong objective answer)

All India Law Entrance Test [AILET]:

This is also a national level examination conducted by NLU, Delhi for the students who want to pursue their law degrees.Students must prepare themselves with the important topics of constitutional law, jurisprudence and many more in order to qualify this examination.

Name of the Examination

All India Law Entrance Test

Conducting Body

National law University Delhi

Mode of Examination


Examination Duration

1 hour and 30 minutes

Subjects Covered

Constitutional law, Jurisprudence, Essay and Others



Total Number of question


Type of questions

Multiple Type Questions

Total Marks


Law School Admission Test [LSAT]:

This is a national level examination conducted by Pearson VUE on the behalf of the Law School Admission Council. This test is generally conducted in April. Students are advised to use the pen and paper in order to complete this examination. This entrance examination is for post graduation course as wella s various undergraduate courses too.

Name of the Examination

Law School Admission Test for India

Conducting Body

Pearson VUE

Mode of Examination


Examination Duration

2 hours 55 minutes

Note: There are 5 sections in this examination. Students will get 35 minutes for each section.

Subjects Covered

There will be five sections. These include:

  • One section on Analytical Reasoning

  • One section on Reading Comprehension

  • Two sections on Logical Reasoning

  • One Variables section



Total Number of question


Type of questions

Multiple Choice Questions

Marking Scheme

Results will be released in percentile form with no negative marking.

Master of Legislative Law Specializations

The LLM (Master of Legislative Law) offers various specializations from which students can choose the one they want to pursue. Stated below is each specialization in this course with essential information about them.

Constitutional Law: This law characterizes the job, powers, and structure of the various entities inside the nation, the Official, the Parliament or Council, and the Legal executive.

Family Law: All the legal steps and cases of family and domestic things come under family law.

Human Rights: If any rights are exhibited which come under the basic standard or principle of human behaviour is dealt with the human rights law.

Insurance Laws: All the insurance policies, claims and everything regarding insurance is taken care of under the insurance law.

Taxation Law: Taxation law which is also known as duty or income law is a region of legitimate examination which manages the established, precedent-based law, legal, charge settlement, and administrative guidelines that comprise the law pertinent to tax assessment.

Corporate Law Degree and Governance or Commercial law (Including International Business): This is also known as business law or corporate law which is an arrangement of law that applies to numerous nations. This law applies to the Rights, Relations, and directives of people and organizations involved in business, marketing, exchange, and deals.

Criminal Law: Criminal law, the assemblage of law that characterizes criminal offenses, manages the dread, charging, and preliminary of suspected people, and fixes punishments and methods of treatment pertinent to indicted guilty parties.

Environmental Law: This law mainly comprises all the acts that take place in order to protect the environment. This law is the legal practice to focus on the management of natural resources such as forests , minerals, wildlife and many more.

Intellectual Property Law: It deals with the rules for securing and enforcing legal rights to inventions, Designs, and Creative Works.

International Trade and Business Laws: It is a Law That Includes the Suitable Rules and Customs for Handling Trade Between Countries and the International Business Law is a Law That Consists of Trades and Transactions at a Global Level.

Jurisprudence: In this specialization students are taught the legal philosophy of law. It has 4 aspects which are the most common:

  • Jurisprudence analyze, explain, classify and criticize entire bodies of law

  • It contrasts and compares with the other fields of knowledge such as literature, economics, religion, and social sciences

  • It also reveals the historical, moral, and cultural basis of a particular legal concept.

  • The last one focuses on finding the answers to abstract questions as “what is law?” and “How do judges decide cases?”

L.L.M. Syllabus

It is important to understand the subjects and syllabus of the course which are structured in a way so that students can get in-depth knowledge about the constitution and law.

Syllabus for semesters 1 and 2

Semester 1

Semester 2

Constitutional Law - I

Constitutional Law - II

Legal Theory - I

Legal Theory - II

Research Methodology

Law and Social Change

Syllabus 3 and 4

Semester 3

Semester 4

Law Relating to Industrial Relations

Law Relating to Industrial Injuries and Social Securities

Law Relating to Labour Wlefare

Law Relating to Service Regulation

Subjects: Syllabus



Legal theory - I

  • Nature of Jurisprudence

  • Meaning of Law

  • Natural Law Theories

  • Classical Positivism

  • Pure Theory of Law

  • Analytical School of Law

  • Sociological School of Law

  • American Realism

  • Scandinavian Realism

  • Historical and Anthropological Jurisprudence

  • Feminist Jurisprudence

  • Postmodernist Jurisprudence

Constitutional Law - I

  • Preamble

  • Fundamental Rights

  • Definition of State

  • Enforceability of Fundamental Rights

  • Test for infringement of Fundamental Rights

  • Right to Equality

  • Right to Freedom

  • Freedom of the Person

  • Right against exploitation

  • Freedom of Religion

  • Right to Property

  • Right to Constitutional Remedies

  • Restriction, Abrogation and Suspension of Fundamental Rights

  • Directive Principles of State Policy

Research Methodology

  • Concept of Reflective thinking

  • Research problem

  • Hypothesis

  • Basic methods of research

  • The technique of Research Observation

  • Analysis of data

  • Report writing

  • Internet material

Legal Theory - II

  • Introduction to Precedents

  • Approach to the Interpretation of the statute

  • Hierarchy of Courts

  • Ratio Decidendi and Obiter dicta

  • Precedent and problems

  • Introductory to the constitutional background

  • Forms of Legislation

  • Parliamentary practice

Constitutional Law - II

  • Principles of Parliamentary and Presidential forms of Govt

  • Nature of the Executive power

  • Composition of Houses of the legislature

  • Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts

  • Doctrine of Pleasure

  • The concept of Federalism

  • Legislative relations under the Indian Constitution

  • Administrative Relations between Union and States

  • Restrictions on the power of State Legislatures on fiscal powers

Law and Social Change

  • Conceptions of Society

  • Social Integration

  • Theories of Social Change

  • Conceptions of Law and Legal System

  • The notion of legal impact and effectiveness

  • Symbolic and instrumental uses of the law

  • Problems in the study of impact and effectiveness

Law Relating to Industrial Relations

  • History of Trade Union

  • Collective Bargaining

  • Freedom of Association

  • Industrial Disputes Act

  • Industrial Dispute Resolutions

Law Relating to Labour Welfare

  • Constitution and Labour Welfare

  • Minimum Wage

  • ILO

  • Labour and Human Rights Equality

  • Unorganized Sector

Law Relating to Industrial Injuries and Social Securities

  • Workmen’s Compensation

  • Fatal Accidents Act

  • Industrial safety Factories Act

  • Occupational Health and Industrial Injuries

  • Social Security

Law Relating to Service Regulation

  • Service Law

  • Conditions of Service Terms

  • Contractual Employment

  • Misconduct and discipline of the employees

  • Judicial Review

Scope of L.L.M

There are ample job opportunities for a law postgraduate such as advocate, session judges, notary, court reporters, trustees, legal advisors and many more.

Job Profiles:

Advocate: The major responsibility of advocates is dealing with all the legal issues and work as a legal advisor. They do all the research work so that they can claim defense in the courtroom

Attorney General: Attorney Generals are hired by the judge of the Supreme Court of India and responsible for assisting in all the legal advice to the government.

District and Sessions Judge: After the years of work experience and the law vetran advocates become the district and session judges. They are the major part of jurisdiction who hear the discussion of the courtroom and finalise the verdict for the accused.

Notary: Notaries are also commonly known as notary public. They are experienced lawyers (minimum 10 years) hired by the central government to verify and authenticate all the legal documents and signatures regarding the state government so that those can be prevented from the fraud.

Solicitor: They are mainly specialised lawyers who provide all the legal services to the commercial law firms as well as private clients. Their areas are specified in various sections such as family, litigation, property or tax.

Teachers and Lecturer: Teachers and lecturers are someone who are known for shaping the future. A qualified postgraduate in law can work as a teacher or lecturer in different colleges and universities.

Court Reporter: Students after completion of their postgraduate degree can work as court reporters. They are responsible to cover the story of the case by attending the court hearings, proceedings and all the important events regarding that case. They also interview the advocates, judges and both the parties so that they can manuscript that into the story.

Top Employment Areas:

  • Law Firms

  • Colleges & Universities

  • Corporate Houses (legal departments)

  • Research Dept.

  • Law Firms

  • Courtrooms

  • Arbitration Consultancies

Careers Opportunities after L.L.M

During a time where law assumes a significant job in each zone of our daily life, it has become an indistinguishable piece of the network. Along these lines, an LL.M degree is an urgent requirement for making sure about a brilliant and promising future. People on finishing their law degree can end up in the legitimate fields of both open and private parts. Some of them incorporate media and distributing houses, town halls, NGO, global associations like UNO or UNICEF, FMCG, law offices, consultancies, corporate, and so forth.

L.L.M: Salary Trends

The salary after the completion of L.L.M totally depends on the work experience and knowledge of the student. There are several law firms that hire freshers in order to train them as well as the choose because of their knowledge about the specialisation.

The full form of LLB is bachelor of law. LLB is derived from Legum Baccalaureus. Candidates who have completed their graduation in any discipline are eligible to pursue 3-year LLB, The 5-year LLB is an integrated law program that can be pursued after intermediate.

The course is offered by colleges that are approved by the Bar Council of India (BCI). Also note that to pursue law in India, the LLB degree holder also has to qualify in the All India Bar Examination (AIBE) conducted by the BCI.

The 3-year Bachelor of Legislative Law typically is divided into six semesters, and students start with the basics of law before gradually moving into the other subjects like constitutional law, family law, jurisprudence, IPC, CrPC, law of contracts, etc. As part of the course, students also have to undertake internships and training programmes at law firms, corporate organisations and courts to further their knowledge and gain real-life experience of the legal profession.

Types of LLB

  1. Before the advent of the 5-year integrated law programme, the 3-year LLB was the default option for law aspirants. Also, with the 5-year course gaining in popularity the Bachelor of Legislative Law course has lost some shine.
  2. Speaking of types of LLB, a law course after graduation, there is the typical 3-year LLB programme which is almost ubiquitous, as it is offered by most of the prominent and not-so prominent universities. That being said, the course in recent times is getting competition from the 5-year integrated programme, which is fast gaining acceptance.
  3. A 4-year LLB programmes also exist, like the ones offered by some colleges in the UK. In this case, the LLB course is combined with other subjects and takes one additional year to complete. The subject combination could include law and politics, or law and human rights
  4. LLB Eligibility Criteria

    The eligibility criteria of Bachelor of Legislative Law may vary across colleges, especially those related to minimum marks; refer the points below for full details. It is important that the candidate knows the eligibility criteria beforehand because otherwise one's candidature can be nullified at any stage of the admission process.

    1. Qualifying exam: Since 3-year LLB is a law course offered after graduation, candidates aspiring for a law degree must have passed graduation from a recognized institute in any discipline like BA, B.Com, B.Sc, BBA, BCA etc.
    2. Minimum marks in qualifying exam: The minimum marks may vary, as some colleges demand 50%, while others require only 45%. Further, in the case of public law colleges, there is relaxation in minimum marks for reserved category candidates.
    3. Age limit: There is no upper age limit for the course
    4. Other cases: Such candidates who are appearing in the final year/semester exam of their graduation course may also apply for the law degree, but they need to meet the other eligibility requirements postulated by the college which the candidate is seeking admission to.

    Career Prospects and Job Scope For LLB

    1. Many candidates decide to do LLB after graduation because it is considered a safe career option. If the candidate completes LLB, he or she may go on to become advocates and work in legal cases. The LLB degree holder has the option of working both as a private lawyer or work for the government. To work in the government sector, the candidate generally needs to qualify in an entrance exam conducted by the Public Service Commission.
    2. Many candidates decide to do LLB after graduation because it is considered a safe career option. If the candidate completes LLB, he or she may go on to become advocates and work in legal cases. The LLB degree holder has the option of working both as a private lawyer or work for the government. To work in the government sector, the candidate generally needs to qualify in an entrance exam conducted by the Public Service Commission.
    3. There is no limit as to what level one can reach after completing an LLB degree. Because if we look at social personalities dominating the public, starting from the late Arun Jaitley and Ram Jethmalani, to present luminaries like Harish Salve and Aryama Sundaram, to the former Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi, the sky's the limit.
    4. After completing the LLB degree, one may work in a variety of roles - corporate lawyer, judge, legal advisor, legal manager.
    5. Some individuals again become social activists and fight for the legal rights of marginal sections of society. The role can be unglamorous and require a lot of sacrifices and standing up to powerful people, but the job satisfaction can be immense.